脑机技术真实案例公布,马斯克要让瘫痪的人动起来

 4个月前     86  
脑机技术真实案例公布,马斯克要让瘫痪的人动起来

文章目录

北京时间12月5日,埃隆·马斯克(Elon Musk)的脑机接口公司Neuralink希望利用大脑植入物让瘫痪人士恢复运动能力,目前正在准备首次人体试验。周一公布的最新研究显示,脑机技术正在帮助脑损伤患者改善认知状况,它的应用似乎没那么遥远。

在美国,创伤性脑损伤已经导致500多万人*残疾。他们甚至无法专注于简单的任务,经常不得不辞职或辍学。但是,周一发表的一项研究给他们带来了一线希望。在这项研究中,5名中度、重度脑损伤患者的头部被植入了电极。当电极刺激他们的大脑时,他们在认知测试中的表现得到了改善。

研究人员称,如果测试结果在更大规模的临床试验中得到证实,那么这种植入物可能会成为治疗慢性脑损伤的*种有效方法。“这是证明你可以有效改善脑损伤问题的*个证据。”领导这项研究的纽约威尔康奈尔医学院的神经学家尼古拉斯·希夫(Nicholas Schiff)博士表示。

吉娜·阿拉塔(Gina Arata)是接受植入手术的志愿者之一。在她22岁时,一场车祸让她出现了疲劳、记忆问题和情绪无法控制问题,导致她放弃了上法学院的计划,和父母一起住在加州莫德斯托,也无法保住一份工作。

2018年,在发生车祸18年后,阿拉塔接受了植入手术。她说,自己的生活发生了深刻变化。“我可以做一个正常人,和别人交谈。看到自己的改变让我有点惊讶。”阿拉塔表示。

大脑关键枢纽

希夫博士和他的同事根据多年来对大脑结构的研究设计了这项人体试验。这些研究表明,人类聚焦任务的能力取决于一个脑区网络。这些区域通过神经元的长分支相互连接,相互发送信号,形成一个反馈回路,让整个网络保持活跃。

希夫及其同事提出了一个假设,那就是大脑在车祸或摔倒等事故中突然遭到碰撞,会破坏脑区网络中的一些远距离连接,导致人们陷入昏迷。在恢复期间,这个网络可能能够自行恢复。但如果大脑严重受损,它可能无法完全恢复。

随后,希夫和同事发现,大脑深处的一个结构是这个网络的关键枢纽。它被称为中央外侧核,是一层薄薄的神经元,大小和形状都和杏仁壳差不多。人类大脑有两个这样的结构,左右半球各有一个。它们似乎能帮助大脑在晚上安静下来入睡,并在早上让大脑运转起来。希夫的研究表明,刺激这些区域的神经元可以唤醒熟睡的老鼠。

这些研究提出了一种可能性,即刺激中央外侧核可能有助于创伤性脑损伤患者重新获得专注力和注意力。外科医生经常在帕金森病患者身上植入电极。这种植入物每秒释放数百次的微小电脉冲,引导邻近的神经元发射自己的信号,恢复大脑的一些功能。

手术

2018年,希夫和他的同事开始招募像阿拉塔这样的志愿者,后者在事故发生后多年内一直患有慢性疾病。在插入电极之前,研究人员会对志愿者进行了一系列测试,以判断他们集中注意力和切换任务的能力。例如,在一次测试中,志愿者每人会收到一张写满字母和数字的纸,必须尽快把它们按顺序连接起来。

在手术前,研究人员扫描了每位志愿者的大脑,绘制出精确的地图。斯坦福大学神经外科医生杰米·亨德森(Jaimie Henderson)博士引导电极穿过大脑,到达中央外侧核。

亨德森博士在六名志愿者身上植入了电极,但其中一名志愿者在出现头皮感染后不得不退出研究。从手术后一个月开始,剩下的五名志愿者接受了后续测试。在接受字母和数字考试时,他们得到的分数介于15%到52%之间。

以前的自己

为了更加广泛地了解志愿者的经历,威尔康奈尔医学院的医学伦理学家约瑟夫·芬斯(Joseph Fins)博士对志愿者及其家人进行了一系列面谈。像阿拉塔一样,大多数志愿者都表示,植入物让他们更像以前的自己了。

相比之下,在认知测试中进步*的志愿者却反应冷淡。“我觉得没什么坏处,只是不知道帮助有多大。”他表示。

然而,这位患者的儿子却观察到了显著的变化,尤其是他父亲的自我意识。“简直是天翻地覆的变化。”他的儿子表示。

比利时列日大学的神经学家史蒂文·劳雷斯(Steven Laureys)博士没有参与这项研究。他指出,研究结果支持了一种理论,即注意力和其他形式的思维依赖于全脑网络。“有足够的理由相信这是值得进行的研究。”他表示。

希夫和他的同事正计划对大脑植入物进行更大规模的研究,他表示:“我们必须看看数据是如何变化的。”

牛津大学的神经外科医生亚历克斯·格林(Alex Green)博士没有参与这项研究。他表示,中央外侧核并不是*有望成为大脑网络枢纽的区域。“我们还不知道实施刺激的*部位。”格林称。他和同事们正在准备他们自己的脑损伤试验,尝试在一个叫做脚桥核的区域使用电极。

劳雷斯博士知道植入手术会很昂贵,但他认为社会应该认识到有数百万人遭受了创伤性脑损伤。“这是一种无声的流行病。”他这么评论道。

版权声明:Robot 发表于 4个月前,共 1900 字。
转载请注明:脑机技术真实案例公布,马斯克要让瘫痪的人动起来 | 脑机网

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Warning: Use of undefined constant _REFERER_ - assumed '_REFERER_' (this will throw an Error in a future version of PHP) in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3396

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Warning: file_get_contents(): Failed to enable crypto in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3431

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Warning: Use of undefined constant _REFERER_ - assumed '_REFERER_' (this will throw an Error in a future version of PHP) in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3396

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Warning: file_get_contents(): Failed to enable crypto in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3431

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Warning: Use of undefined constant _REFERER_ - assumed '_REFERER_' (this will throw an Error in a future version of PHP) in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3396

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Warning: file_get_contents(): Failed to enable crypto in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3431

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Warning: Use of undefined constant _REFERER_ - assumed '_REFERER_' (this will throw an Error in a future version of PHP) in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3396

Warning: file_get_contents(): SSL operation failed with code 1. OpenSSL Error messages: error:14090086:SSL routines:ssl3_get_server_certificate:certificate verify failed in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3431

Warning: file_get_contents(): Failed to enable crypto in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3431

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Warning: Use of undefined constant _REFERER_ - assumed '_REFERER_' (this will throw an Error in a future version of PHP) in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3396

Warning: file_get_contents(): SSL operation failed with code 1. OpenSSL Error messages: error:14090086:SSL routines:ssl3_get_server_certificate:certificate verify failed in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3431

Warning: file_get_contents(): Failed to enable crypto in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3431

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Warning: Use of undefined constant _REFERER_ - assumed '_REFERER_' (this will throw an Error in a future version of PHP) in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3396

Warning: file_get_contents(): SSL operation failed with code 1. OpenSSL Error messages: error:14090086:SSL routines:ssl3_get_server_certificate:certificate verify failed in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3431

Warning: file_get_contents(): Failed to enable crypto in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3431

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Warning: Use of undefined constant _REFERER_ - assumed '_REFERER_' (this will throw an Error in a future version of PHP) in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3396

Warning: file_get_contents(): SSL operation failed with code 1. OpenSSL Error messages: error:14090086:SSL routines:ssl3_get_server_certificate:certificate verify failed in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3431

Warning: file_get_contents(): Failed to enable crypto in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3431

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Warning: Use of undefined constant _REFERER_ - assumed '_REFERER_' (this will throw an Error in a future version of PHP) in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3396

Warning: file_get_contents(): SSL operation failed with code 1. OpenSSL Error messages: error:14090086:SSL routines:ssl3_get_server_certificate:certificate verify failed in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3431

Warning: file_get_contents(): Failed to enable crypto in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3431

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Warning: Use of undefined constant _REFERER_ - assumed '_REFERER_' (this will throw an Error in a future version of PHP) in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3396

Warning: file_get_contents(): SSL operation failed with code 1. OpenSSL Error messages: error:14090086:SSL routines:ssl3_get_server_certificate:certificate verify failed in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3431

Warning: file_get_contents(): Failed to enable crypto in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3431

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Warning: Use of undefined constant _REFERER_ - assumed '_REFERER_' (this will throw an Error in a future version of PHP) in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3396

Warning: file_get_contents(): SSL operation failed with code 1. OpenSSL Error messages: error:14090086:SSL routines:ssl3_get_server_certificate:certificate verify failed in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3431

Warning: file_get_contents(): Failed to enable crypto in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3431

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Warning: Use of undefined constant _REFERER_ - assumed '_REFERER_' (this will throw an Error in a future version of PHP) in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3396

Warning: file_get_contents(): SSL operation failed with code 1. OpenSSL Error messages: error:14090086:SSL routines:ssl3_get_server_certificate:certificate verify failed in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3431

Warning: file_get_contents(): Failed to enable crypto in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3431

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Warning: Use of undefined constant _REFERER_ - assumed '_REFERER_' (this will throw an Error in a future version of PHP) in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3396

Warning: file_get_contents(): SSL operation failed with code 1. OpenSSL Error messages: error:14090086:SSL routines:ssl3_get_server_certificate:certificate verify failed in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3431

Warning: file_get_contents(): Failed to enable crypto in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3431

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Warning: Use of undefined constant _REFERER_ - assumed '_REFERER_' (this will throw an Error in a future version of PHP) in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3396

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Warning: file_get_contents(): Failed to enable crypto in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3431

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Warning: Use of undefined constant _REFERER_ - assumed '_REFERER_' (this will throw an Error in a future version of PHP) in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3396

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Warning: file_get_contents(): Failed to enable crypto in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3431

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Warning: Use of undefined constant _REFERER_ - assumed '_REFERER_' (this will throw an Error in a future version of PHP) in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3396

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Warning: file_get_contents(): Failed to enable crypto in /www/wwwroot/www.naoji123.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-autopost-pro/wp-autopost-function.php on line 3431

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